Coalition for Community & Healthcare Acquired Infection Reduction
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CHAIR is actively working on healthcare plumbing system development to reduce infectious disease transmission.


Plumbing Systems


A critical aspect of reducing healthcare acquired infections is to find the ideal layout of toileting facilities, and the accompanying plumbing and ventilation systems that will minimize infectious disease transmission at its source (e.g. fecal matter).


As infection control specialists know, toilet flushing produces an aerosol plume, and studies “…demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents.”


* Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases.


*From the American Journal of Infection Control xxx (2012) 1-5


Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol:


A literature review with suggestions for future research David L. Johnson PhD a,*, Kenneth R. Mead PhD b, Robert A. Lynch PhD a, Deborah V.L. Hirst PhD b


  • a Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Oklahoma College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK.
  • b Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH

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